الخميس، 17 أكتوبر، 2013

موريتانيا في المرتبة الاولى من حيث العبودية الحديثة حسب منظمة : WALK FREE FOUNDATION



غلاف التقرير وشعار المنظمة
أعدت منظمة (وولك فري فونداسيون) الاسترالية تقريرا يتضمن ترتيب الدول من حيث العبودية الحديثة ، وتعتبر هذه المنظمة الاسترالية ناشطة في هذا المجال وتهتم أساسا كما نص تعريفها على إنهاء حالة العبودية الحديثة من خلال تحديد البلدان والصناعات الأكثر مسؤولية عنها ، تحديد وتنفيذ التدخلات مع الشركاء في تلك البلدان التي سيكون لها أكبر الأثر على إنهاء هذا النمط من العبودية الذي يشمل الاتجار بالبشر والحرمان من الحقوق ومنع حرية الحركة والتنقل الى أعمال أخرى أكثر دخلا،والحرمان من الحياة الكريمة.
وجاء في التقرير أن موريتانيا تحتل المرتبة الأولى عالميا حيث  يشير الى أن تقديرات عدد المستعبدين ما بين  140ألف  إلى 160 ألف شخص من مجموع السكان البالغ 3,8 مليون نسمة ونسبة مائوية بلغت 97,9 . رغم أن موريتانيا وقعت على أغلب الاتفاقيات المجرمة لكل أشكال استغلال البشر مثل (الاتفاقية الخاصة بالرق، الاتفاقية الخاصة بالرق التكميلية، بروتوكول الأمم المتحدة للاتجار بالبشر، اتفاقية العمل الجبري، اتفاقية أسوأ أشكال عمل الأطفال، البروتوكول الاختياري لجنة حقوق الطفل بشأن بيع الأطفال) وباستثناء اتفاقية العمل المنزلي.
ويضيف التقرير أن نسبة 20% من الموريتانيين يعيشون حالة عبودية سواء تلك الوراثية أم تلك الناجمة عن العمل ، كما أشار الى أن الناس هنا يمكن أن يتم بيعهم أو إهدائهم وخاصة النساء اللائي يغلب عليهن العمل في المنزل في المناطق الحضرية و أعمال أخرى أشد خطورة في المناطق الريفية كما قد يخضعن للاعتداء الجنسي من قبل أسيادهنن كما ان العبيد الذكور لا يسمح لهم بامتلاك الاراضي وأن العبد اذا تزوج بإن المهر يأخذه السيد المالك للمستعبدة.
وأوضح التقرير أيضا أن بعض تعاليم الاسلام تستخدم لتبرير العبودية على الرغم من أن الكثير من الناس مدركين لحقيقة أنه وفقا للشريعة الإسلامية ، لا يمكن لمسلم استعباد أخيه المسلم. كما أوضح التقرير أن الضحايا يعانون من صعوبات شديدة في رفع قضاياهم أمام العدالة حيث عليهم (الضحايا) إثبات الواقعة وهو أمر في غاية الصعوبة حسب التقرير نظرا للأمية التي يعاني منها غالبيتهم.
وختم التقرير بمجموعة من النقاط التي يجب على الحكومة الموريتانية اتباعها اذا كانت تسعى جادة للقضاء على العبودية منها:
1- إجراء دراسة وطنية لجمع بيانات أكثر دقة عن انتشار وطبيعة الأشكال القائمة من العبودية.
2- نشر تقرير سنوي حول الجهود المبذولة والتقدم المحرز في عمل الوكالة الوطنية لمحاربة بقايا الرق ، والتكامل، و مكافحة الفقر.
3- التركيز على إزالة و معالجة العوائق التي تحول دون الوصول إلى العدالة للضحايا، بما في ذلك السماح للمنظمات غير الحكومية لمساعدة الضحايا على تقديم الشكاوى. .
4- التركيز على إنهاء إفلات المجرمين من العقاب، من خلال التأكد من أن جميع حالات الرق يتم التحقيق.
5- إنشاء آلية لدعم الضحايا ، عن طريق برامج إعادة الدمج . .
التقرير الكامل بالإنجليزية
 Mauritanie
1. The problem
Mauritania has the highest proportion of people in slavery in the world. According to one NGO in Mauritania,
up to 20 percent of the Mauritanian population is enslaved.2308 While not identical to the Global Slavery
Index estimated of prevalence, these two figures, in the absence of more precise measurement, point
to a growing consensus of high levels of enslavement in Mauritania.
Slavery in Mauritania primarily takes the form of chattel slavery, meaning that
adults and children in slavery are the full property of their masters who exercise
total ownership over them and their descendants. Slave status has been passed
down through the generations from people originally captured during historical
raids by the slave-owning groups.31 People in slavery may be bought and sold,
rented out and given away as gifts. Slavery is prevalent in both rural and urban areas. It is reported that
women are disproportionately affected by slavery; for example, they usually work within the domestic sphere,
and a high level of control is exercised over their movements and social interactions. They are subject to
sexual assault by their masters. Women’s roles include childcare and domestic chores, but they may also herd
animals and farm, as men in slavery do.32
Beyond the context of private homes, it is reported that some boys, who have been sent to attend Koranic
schools to become talibes (students), have been forced into begging. Although the scale of this problem is not
known, it is thought to be quite significant; affecting local boys as well as boys trafficked into Mauritania from
the surrounding regions.33
It is also reported that women have been subjected to forced marriage and sexual exploitation, both within
Mauritania but also in the Middle East.34
Slaves are not permitted to have any possessions, as they are considered to be possessions themselves.
As such they are denied inheritance rights and ownership of land and other resources. When an enslaved person
marries, the dowry is taken by the ‘master’ and if they die their property can be claimed by the ‘master’.35
Notable aspects of the problem
Mauritanian society is made up of three main ethnic groups, commonly known as Black Moors or Haratins,
Afro-Mauritanians, and White Moors.
Haratins, whose name literally means “ones who have been freed”, are descendants of the Black Moors, the
historical slave population (‘Haratin’ is not a term that is used by Haratin people use to identify themselves
as it can be discriminatory). The Haratins are understood to be the ‘property’ of the White Moors, who are
a minority in the country but wield disproportionate (majority) political and economic power.36
Mauritania, with understandings of race and class, as well as some religious teachings being used to justify slavery.
Without access to education or alternative means of subsistence, many believe that it is God’s wish for them to be
slaves.37 As most people in slavery are kept illiterate and uneducated, they are unaware of the fact that according
to Islamic law, a Muslim cannot enslave a fellow Muslim. Compounding this, the legal and policy framework to
protect women’s rights in Mauritania is extremely deficient, with many discriminatory laws. Indeed, according
to the 2001 Family Code (Code du Statut personnel), women remain perpetual minors. Harmful traditional
practices, including early and forced marriages and female genital mutilation, are commonplace. There is no
specific law against violence against women and marital rape is not a crime. Although Mauritania has ratified
the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), it entered a
reservation stating that only articles that comply with Sharia Law and the Mauritanian Constitution would
be applied. The Sharia Law and the Criminal Code currently pose grave violations to women’s rights; for
instance, women who are victims of rape can be prosecuted for the crime of Zina (adultery).38
2. What is the government doing about it?
Mauritania has ratified a number of key international treaties regarding modern slavery but not the Domestic
Work Convention. The ILO Committee of Experts has repeatedly expressed concern about the situation in
Mauritania, and has called on the Government to take steps including: adopt a comprehensive strategy against
slavery; ensure that victims can actually assert their rights and seek help; ensure that authorities undertake
investigations promptly; and ensure that prison sentences are actually imposed on perpetrators.39
Slavery has been prohibited by Mauritanian law
since 1961, when the Government redrafted
the Constitution, following independence from
France, and incorporated various principles
from the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. In 1981, after a coup d’état, Mauritania
again declared slavery illegal, through Decree
No. 81234. However, no legislation was
introduced to implement the Decree.40 It was
only in 2003 that a law was passed against trafficking in persons,41 and four years later, the 2007-048 law
provided a new definition for slavery42 and attached to it a penalty of five to 10 years’ imprisonment and a
fine for violations of the law. Taken together, these laws criminalise trafficking in persons and most forms
of slavery. The 2007-048 law provides for victim compensation and assistance for those released from
slavery and makes liable those who do not follow-up a denunciation of slavery to sentencing and a fine.
This includes police officers and chiefs who may be complicit to these crimes.43 There are some gaps in
Mauritania’s criminal laws on modern slavery as some practices, including forced marriage and debt-bondage,
are not criminalised.
Despite the existence of national laws, it is reportedly very difficult for victims of slavery to seek access to
justice in Mauritania. The burden of proof lies with the victim and investigations cannot be pursued unless
This is highly problematic in light of the fact that most victims are illiterate, making it impossible to manage
the paperwork. Victims of slavery often do not know about their rights and their claim to protection from the
law.45 The Government provides no support for programmes to assist victims
to file complaints of slavery.46 As many victims have been indoctrinated by
the practice of intergenerational slavery, it is extremely difficult for them
to pursue legal challenges against their ‘masters’ in court.47 These and other
difficulties are reflected in low levels of investigations and prosecutions under
the relevant laws.
In 2012, the ILO Committee of Experts referred to information from
the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) that even though
several victims had tried to take action against their ‘masters’, only one conviction has been handed down in
November 2011 and the convicted offender was released on bail pending the appeal of this sentence.48 The
appeal has still not taken place at the time of writing (July 2013) and he remains at liberty. The Government
is known to have only investigated two cases in 2013.49
Beyond information about the existence of national laws, very limited information is available about the
Mauritanian Government response to this issue. Information about the budget allocated by the Government
to supporting the eradication of slavery is unclear. According to one report,
the Government allocated 1 billion ouguiyas (MRO) (approximately US
$3.3 million) to a National Programme for the Eradication of the Vestiges
of Slavery in 2009,50 which focused on preventing slavery by improving
education and health, and alleviating poverty. It did not focus on awarenessraising
or efforts to combat the impunity of offenders, or protect victims.51
The extent to which it was implemented is unclear, with no detailed results
having been released,52 and the Programme has now been closed. The Programme was replaced by a new
national Agency against the Vestiges of Slavery, for Integration and against Poverty (established in March
2013), but no information has been published on its mandate or work plans. The likely impact of this Agency
on the practice of slavery is unclear, given its reported focus on poverty alleviation without any focus on the
social context that permits and fosters slavery.53
In terms of measures to combat the impunity of offenders, there is no special law enforcement unit, and
no system in place to collect and record data concerning slavery.54 It is reported that more than 500 law
enforcement and judicial officials have participated in training on the implementation of the anti-slavery law.
Mauritania has a Labour Inspectorate but, in addition to being confronted with corruption, the Inspectorate
does not have the resources to carry out enough work to enforce the country’s labour laws.
The only victim protection mechanism in place in Mauritania is limited to child victims. Delivered through
the Government and NGOs, assistance takes the form of training and education within child protection
centres, with an effort to reintegrate children back into public schools. The Ministry of Social Affairs,
Childhood and the Family operate four National Centres for the Protection and Social Integration of
Children.55 NGOs have noted that these centres are not fully functioning, due to a lack of funding,56 and
it is unknown how ma ny of the total number of children assisted are victims of modern slavery (ninety children
received services from the centres in 2012-13 according to the US TIP Report 2013).
In 2010, an office of the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
opened in Nouakchott. It has since focused on developing a ‘road map’ to ending slavery and plans to work
with the Government to implement the necessary steps. However, in
December 2012, the road map had not yet been finalised or published.57
While there are recent examples of NGO and Government cooperation
on this issue, cooperation with civil society on forced labour, trafficking
and slavery is not institutionalised. Only the multi-stakeholder Child
Trafficking, Smuggling and Labour Group includes NGOs and other
members of the civil society in a systematic manner. There exists no involvement of social partners.
Notable aspects of the response
As noted above, in March 2013, the President of Mauritania established a new agency to combat slavery, the
National Agency to Fight against the Vestiges of Slavery, Integration, and Fight against Poverty.58 This agency
has the aim to tackle poverty, and to promote integration of refugees, with the aim to end slavery through
abolishing some of the factors pertaining to it. Further information on its mandate and practical functioning
remain to be observed.
3. What needs to happen?
Mauritania should:
■■ Perform a nationwide study to collect more precise data on prevalence and nature of existing forms
of slavery, as part of a larger focus on eradication.
■■ Publish an annual report on efforts and progress made in the work of the National Agency to Fight
against the Vestiges of Slavery, Integration, and Fight against Poverty.
■■ Focus on removing and addressing barriers to access to justice for victims, including through allowing
NGOs to assist victims to file complaints.
■■ Focus on ending the impunity of offenders, through ensuring that all slavery cases are investigated and
where sufficient evidence, prosecuted.
■■ Clearly mandate and task one central unit of law enforcement with responsibility for investigating, and
reporting quarterly on progress of investigations of slavery.
■■ Clearly mandate and task one central unit of the prosecution service with responsibility for prosecuting,
and reporting quarterly on progress of prosecutions of slavery.
■■ Establish a victim-support mechanism, with emergency shelter and assistance, legal assistance and
reintegration programmes.
■■ Ensure existing poverty reduction strategies include a focus on enabling enslaved people and former

slaves to generate income independent from their former masters. 

رأيكم يهمني

الاسم

بريد إلكتروني *

رسالة *

blogtopsites'